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Ingredients

Focus X Brain advanced brain supplement formula is a scientific blend of up to 33 clinically studied ingredients exposed in cientific articles:

Calcium (as dicalcium phosphate):

“Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the human body… helps your body with: Building strong bones and teeth… Sending and receiving nerve signals”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002412.htm
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 2011. PMID: 21796828 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796828.)

Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid):

“Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body… Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of the damage caused by free radicals.”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/002404.htm.
(REFERENCES: Hemila H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013: 31;1:CD000980. PMID: 23440782 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440782. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 26.)

Gamma Amino Butiric Acid (GABA):
“Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric acid) // (also called GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system… While GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in the mature brain, its actions were thought to be primarily excitatory in the developing brain.”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma-Aminobutyric_acid
(REFERENCES: Watanabe M, Maemura K, Kanbara K, Tamayama T, Hayasaki H (2002). «GABA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system and other organs». En Jeon KW. Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology 213. pp. 1-47. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(02)13011-7. ISBN 978-0-12-364617-0. PMID 11837891.)
Magnesium (as magnesium oxide):

“Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system, keeps the heart beat steady, and helps bones remain strong. It also helps regulate blood glucose levels and aid in the production of energy and protein.”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002423.htm
(REFERENCES: Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium. ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer. Accessed March 17, 2015. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997. PMID: 23115811 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23115811.)

Dimethylethanolamine (as dimethylethanolamine bitartrate)

“(DMAE)… As a component of nerve membranes, PDME may increase fluidity and permeability, and acting as an antioxidant… appears to protect from iron-induced oxidation.. ”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethylethanolamine
(REFERENCES: Zahniser NR, Chou D, Hanin I (marzo de 1977). «Is 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) indeed a precursor of brain acetylcholine? A gas chromatographic evaluation». J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 200 (3): 545-59. PMID 850128.)

Inositol:

“Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound… They are involved in a number of biological processes, including: Insulin signal transduction, Cytoskeleton assembly, Nerve guidance (epsin)…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol
(REFERENCES: 1.-Levine J, Barak Y, Kofman O, et al. Follow-up and relapse analysis of an inositol study of depression. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1995;32:14 – 21. Benjamin J, Levine J, Fux M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:1084 – 1086. )

L-Glutamine:

“…Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q; encoded by the codons CAA and CAG) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins… Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood–brain barrier. In the body, it is found circulating in the blood, as well as stored in the skeletal muscles. It becomes conditionally essential (requiring intake from food or supplements) in states of illness or injury.”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamine
(REFERENCES: “”Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load”, Welbourne, T.C. Am J Clin Nutr, 61: 1058-61, 1995. Cooper, Arthur J.L. “Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity”, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 280 – 286, 2001 Opara, E.C., Petro A., et al. “L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL/6J mice”, en J Nutr, 126: 273-79, 1996. “Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system,”, Keast, D., Arstein, D., et al. Med J Aust, 162; 15-8, 1995.)

Bacopin® (Bacopa Extract):

“Bacopa monniera or Brahmi, has been studied for its purported effects on the functions of the central nervous system… Preliminary studies established the role of Brahmi in improving learning and memory capabilities. Treatment with the plant produced improvement in maze learning in albino rats… The beneficial effects of Brahmi on memory retention and its effectiveness in alleviating anxiety neurosis have been validated by clinical trials on normal subjects as well as those with specific mental disorders.”
Taken from: http://bacopin.com/bacopasystem.htm

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine:

“is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). It does so using molecular oxygen (O2), as well as iron (Fe2+) and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors. L-DOPA is a precursor for dopamine, which, in turn, is a precursor for the important neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline)…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine_hydroxylase (REFERENCES: Haavik, J., Toska, K., Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Parkinson’s Disease. Molecular Neurobiology, 1998. 16(3) :p.285-309. Nakashima A, et al Role of N-terminus of tyrosine hydroxylase in the biosynthesis of catecholamines . J Neural Transm. (2009) Webster D, Wildgoose J Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2010))

Potassium (as potassium citrate):

“Potassium is a mineral that your body needs to work properly. It is a type of electrolyte… Your body needs potassium to: Build proteins, Break down and use carbohydrates, Build muscle, Maintain normal body growth, Control the electrical activity of the heart, Control the acid-base balance”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002413.htm
(REFERENCES: Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 117. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2015-2020. 8th ed. December 2015. health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/. Accessed May 4, 2016.)

Vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate):

“…Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in your immune system and metabolic processes… ”
Take from: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/002406.htm
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000. PMID: 25077263 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077263. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 26.)

Niacin (as niacinamide):

“…Niacin is a form of vitamin B3. It is found in foods such as yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains…. ” “It is also used along with other treatments for circulation problems, migraine headache, Meniere’s syndrome and other causes of dizziness…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/ency/article/002409.htm
(REFERENCIAS: AIM-HIGH Investigators. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol Rationale and study design. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: Impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH). Am Heart J. 2011 Mar;161(3):471-7.e2. PMID: 21392600 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21392600. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193625.)

Grape seed extract 5:1 (vitis vinifera):

“…Grape seed oil may provide some health benefits. A 1993 study supports the claim that grape seed oil increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C or “good cholesterol”) levels and reduces LDL levels… ” “… sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occur in grape seed for it to be extracted commercially…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape_seed_oil
(REFERENCES: Journal of American College of Cardiology, 14-18 de marzo de 1993 Nash, DT (2004). “Cardiovascular risk beyond LDL-C levels: Other lipids are performers in cholesterol story”. Postgraduate Medicine. 116 (3): 11–5. doi:10.3810/pgm.2004.09.1584. PMID 15460086.)

Choline Bitartrate:

“…Involvement of choline in long-term health and development of clinical disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, cognitive decline in aging and regulation of blood lipid levels, has not been well-defined… ” “…In humans, the brain continues to develop after birth, and does not become similar to its adult structure until around four years of age. By feeding infants formula instead of milk, and presumably through differences in choline amount in the breast milk of mothers consuming different choline levels, the still-developing brain of an infant may be impacted, which may, in part, contribute to the differences seen between individual adult humans in memory and recall… ”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline
(REFERENCES: Van Beek AH, Claassen JA (enero de 2010). «The cerebrovascular role of the cholinergic neural system in Alzheimer’s disease». Behavioural Brain Research 221 (2): 537-542. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.047. PMID 20060023. Ongür D, Prescot AP, Jensen JE, et al. (enero de 2010). «T2 relaxation time abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia». Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 63 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1002/mrm.22148. PMID 19918902.)

Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCl):

“…Pyridoxine is a vitamin… Pyridoxine is also used for Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell anemia, migraine headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, night leg cramps, muscle cramps, arthritis, allergies, acne and various other skin conditions, and infertility. It is also used for dizziness, motion sickness, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), seizures, convulsions due to fever, and movement disorders…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/934.html
(REFERENCES: Baker F, Picton D, Blackwood S, Hunt J, Erskine M, and Dyas M. Blinded comparison of folic acid and placebo in patients with ischaemic heart disease: an outcome trial. Circulation 2002;106(Suppl II):741. Semba RD, Muhilal, and West KP. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on hematological indicators of iron metabolism and protein status in children. Nutr.Res 1992;12:469-478)

Pantothenic acid:

“Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5… Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations… Pantothenic acid is also used orally for protection against mental and physical stress and anxiety, reducing adverse effects of thyroid therapy in congenital hypothyroidism, reducing signs of aging, reducing susceptibility to colds and other infections…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/853.html
(REFERENCES: Champault, G. and Patel, J. C. [Treatment of constipation with Bepanthene]. Med.Chir Dig. 1977;6:57-59. Budde, J., Tronnier, H., Rahlfs, V. W., and Frei-Kleiner, S. [Systemic therapy of diffuse effluvium and hair structure damage]. Hautarzt 1993;44:380-384. Kehrl, W. and Sonnemann, U. [Dexpanthenol nasal spray as an effective therapeutic principle for treatment of rhinitis sicca anterior]. Laryngorhinootologie 1998;77:506-512.)

Zinc (as zinc oxide):

“…Zinc is a nutrient that people need to stay healthy… Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. It is needed for the body’s defensive (immune) system to properly work. It plays a role in cell division, cell growth, wound healing, and the breakdown of carbohydrates.”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/spanish/druginfo/natural/982.html
(REFERENCES: Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998. McEvoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998. Sarris, J., Kean, J., Schweitzer, I., and Lake, J. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidence. Complement Ther Med 2011;19:216-227. View abstract.)

Boron (as boron amino acid chelate):

“…Boron seems to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as magnesium and phosphorus. It also seems to increase estrogen levels in older (post-menopausal) women and healthy men. Estrogen is thought to be helpful in maintaining healthy bones and mental function…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/894.html
(REFERENCIES: Newnham RE. The role of boron in human nutrition. J Applied Nutrition 1994;46:81-85.)

Phosphatidylserine:

“…Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis… In May, 2003 the Food and Drug Administration gave “qualified health claim” status to phosphatidylserine thus allowing labels to state “consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly” along with the disclaimer “very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim.”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphatidylserine
(REFERENCES: T. H. Crook, PhD et al. (mayo de 1991). «Effects of phosphatidylserine in age‐associated memory impairment». Neurology 41 (5): 644-649. doi:10.1212/WNL.41.5.644. Veronika Vakhapova et al. (2010). Phosphatidylserine Containing ω–3 Fatty Acids May Improve Memory Abilities in Non-Demented Elderly with Memory Complaints: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial 29 (5). doi:10.1159/000310330. Akito Kato-Kataoka et al. (noviembre de 2010). «Soybean-Derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Function of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints». J Clin Biochem Nutr. 47 (3): 246–255. doi:10.3164/jcbn.10-62. Melanie Schubert et al. (junio de 2011). «Milk-based phospholipids increase morning cortisol availability and improve memory in chronically stressed men». Nutrition Research 31 (6): 413–420. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2011.05.012.)

Iron (as ferrous sulfate):

“…After uptake in human cells, iron storage is carefully regulated; iron ions are never “free”… A major component of this regulation is the protein transferrin, which binds iron ions absorbed from the duodenum and carries it in the blood to cells…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron
(REFERENCES: “Hoppe, M.; Hulthén, L.; Hallberg, L. (2005). “The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification”. European Journal of Nutrition. 45 (1): … Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1989). Conversations on Chelation and Mineral Nutrition. Keats Publishing. ISBN 0-87983-501-X.)

Thiamin (as thiamin HCl):

“…Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement… The mitochondrial PDH and OGDH are part of biochemical pathways that result in the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a major form of energy for the cell. PDH links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle, while the reaction catalyzed by OGDH is a rate-limiting step in the citric acid cycle. In the nervous system, PDH is also involved in the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, and for myelin synthesis…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine
(REFERENCES: “Thiamine’s Mood-Mending Qualities, Richard N. Podel, Nutrition Science News, January 1999. Lonsdale D (2006). “A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives”. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 3 (1): 49–59. PMID 16550223.)

Manganese (as manganese sulfate):

“…In biology, manganese(II) ions function as cofactors for a large variety of enzymes with many functions. Manganese enzymes are particularly essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese
(REFERENCES: ” A system of chemistry, in four volumes. Volumen 1. Thomas Thomson. Editores e impresores: Bell & Bradfute, y E. Balfour, 1802. Pág. 207 Kwakye GF, Paoliello MM, Mukhopadhyay S, Bowman AB, Aschner M. Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease: Shared and Distinguishable Features. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 6 de julio de 2015, Volumen 12(7): 7519-40.)

Riboflavin:

“…Riboflavin is a type of B vitamin. It is water soluble, which means it is not stored in the body. You must replenish the vitamin in your body every day… Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins. It is important for body growth and red blood cell production. It also aids in the release of energy from proteins…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/957.html
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225.)

Vitamin A (as retinyl acetate):

“… Vitamin A plays a role in a variety of functions throughout the body,[2] such as: Vision, Gene transcription, Immune function, Embryonic development and reproduction, Bone metabolism, Haematopoiesis, Skin and cellular health, Antioxidant activity, Teeth, Mucous membrane…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A
(REFERENCES: Kono, Nozomu; Arai, Hiroyuki (enero de 2015). «Intracellular Transport of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A and E» [Transporte intracelular de las vitaminas liposolubles A y E]. Traffic (en inglés) (Wiley online library) 16 (1): 19-34. doi:10.1111/tra.12231 Grater H. (1997). «Vitamine A functions, dietary requirements and safety in humans.». Int j Vitam Nutr (en inglés) 67 (6): 71-90. J. F. Arens & D. A. Van Dorp (1946). «Synthesis of some Compounds Possessing Vitamin A Activity». Nature (en inglés) 157 (3981): 190. doi:10.1038/157190a0.)

Copper (as copper amino acid chelate):

“…Copper is an essential trace mineral present in all body tissues… Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the blood vessels, nerves, immune system, and bones healthy. Copper also aids in iron absorption…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002419.htm
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001. PMID: 25057538 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225.)

Folate (as folic acid):

“…Folic acid, another form of which is known as folate, is one of the B vitamins… Some evidence links a shortage of folate with depression… randomised controlled trials showed using folic acid in addition to SSRIs may have benefits… Folic acid supplementation affects noradrenaline and serotonin receptors within the brain, which could be the cause of folic acid’s possible ability to act as an antidepressant.”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folic_acid
(REFERENCES: “The importance of folate, zinc and antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of subfertility. Ebisch IM, Thomas CM, Peters WH, Braat DD, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD, Berry RJ (1988). “Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects”. Journal of the American Medical Association 260 (21): 3141-3145. PMID 3184392. Scott JM (1999 May). “Folate and vitamin B12”. Proc Nutr Soc. 2 (58): 441-8. PMID 10466189.)

Biotin:

“…Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R… Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids.[2] Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. It may also be helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level… ”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotin
(REFERENCES: ” Campbell, R. Keith (Nov. 2006). “A Critical Review of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin”. U.S. Pharmacist 31 (11). Otten, JJ; Hellwig, JP; Meyers, LD., eds. (2006). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. The National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-10091-7. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL (2005). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont. ISBN 0-534-55986-7. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL (2005). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont. ISBN 0-534-55986-7.)

Chromium (as chromium amino acid chelate):

“…Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain function and other body processes. Chromium also aids in insulin action and glucose metabolism…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002418.htm
(REFERENCES: Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225.)

Selenium (as sodium selenite):

“…Selenium is an essential trace mineral. This means your body must get this mineral in the food you eat. Small amounts of selenium are good for your health… Selenium helps your body with: Making special proteins, called antioxidant enzymes. These play a role in preventing cell damage…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002414.htm
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000. PMID: 25077263 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077263. National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Selenium. July 13, 2013. Available at: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/#h2. Accessed October 23, 2015.)

Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin):

“…Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism… Vitamin B12 is an ingredient in multi-vitamin pills and in some countries used to enrich grain-based foods such as bread and pasta. In the U.S. non-prescription products can be purchased providing up to 5000 µg/serving, and it is a common ingredient in energy drinks and energy shots, usually at many times the recommended dietary allowance of B12…”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12
(REFERENCES: Yamada, Kasuhiro (2013). Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Sigel, Roland K. O., eds. Interrelations between essential metal ions and human diseases [Las interrelaciones entre iones metálicos esenciales y las enfermedades humanas.]. Metal ions in life sciences (en inglés). Vol. 13. Springer. pp. 295—320. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_9 Sethi, N.; Robilotti, E.; Sadan, Y. (2004). «Neurological manifestations of vitamin B-12 deficiency» [Manifestaciones neurológicas de la deficiencia de vitamina B12]. The internet journal of nutrition and wellness (en inglés). Vol. 2 (No. 1).)

Iodine (as potassium iodide):

“…Iodine is needed for the cells to convert food into energy. Humans need iodine for normal thyroid function, and for the production of thyroid hormones… Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual disability called cretinism…”
Taken from: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002421.htm
(REFERENCES: Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001. PMID: 25057538 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25057538. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225.)

Molybdenum (as sodium molybdate):

“…Molybdenum is a trace dietary element necessary for the survival of humans and the few mammals that have been studied. Four mammalian Mo-dependent enzymes are known, all of them harboring a pterin-based molybdenum cofactor (Moco) in their active site: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reductase.”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molybdenum
(REFERENCES: Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 1384. ISBN 0123526515. edited by Glenn D. Considine. (2005). «Molybdenum». En Considine, Glenn D. Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. pp. 1038-1040. ISBN 9780471615255.)

Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol):

“…It is one of the five forms of vitamin D… Cholecalciferol was first described in 1936. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Cholecalciferol is available as a generic medication… ”
Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecalciferol
(REFERENCES: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. Vitamin D: The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Last full review/revision April 2007 by Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD. Lieberman, Shari (2007). The REAL Vitamin & Mineral Book. Penguin Group. pp. 93-99.)

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